Helical Gear Reducer

Worm gears are often used when large swiftness reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is determined by the number of begins of the worm and quantity of teeth on the worm equipment. But worm gears have sliding contact which is calm but tends to produce heat and also have relatively low tranny efficiency.
As for the materials for creation, in general, worm is made from hard metal as the worm gear is made from relatively soft steel such as for example aluminum bronze. This is since the number of teeth on the worm equipment is relatively high in comparison to worm with its number of starts being generally 1 to 4, by reducing the worm gear hardness, the friction on the worm the teeth is reduced. Another characteristic of worm manufacturing may be the need of specialized machine for gear cutting and tooth grinding of worms. The worm gear, however, may be made with the hobbing machine used for spur gears. But because of the different tooth shape, it isn’t possible to cut many gears simultaneously by stacking the apparatus blanks as can be carried out with spur gears.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, angling pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and in which a delicate velocity adjustment by utilizing a huge speed reduction is necessary. When you can rotate the worm equipment by worm, it is normally extremely hard to rotate worm by using the worm gear. That is called the self locking feature. The self locking feature cannot always be assured and another method is preferred for true positive reverse prevention.
Also there is duplex worm gear type. When working with these, it is possible to adjust backlash, as when one’s teeth use necessitates backlash adjustment, without requiring a modify in the guts distance. There are not too many manufacturers who can generate this type of worm.
The worm equipment is more commonly called worm wheel in China.
A worm equipment is a gear consisting of a shaft with a spiral thread that engages with and drives a toothed wheel. Worm gears are a vintage style of equipment, and a edition of one of the six basic machines. Basically, a worm equipment is a screw butted up against what looks like a standard spur gear with somewhat angled and curved teeth.
It changes the rotational movement by 90 degrees, and the plane of movement also changes because of the placement of the worm on the worm wheel (or simply “the wheel”). They are typically comprised of a steel worm and a brass wheel.
Worm Gear
Figure 1. Worm gear. Most worms (however, not all) are at the bottom.
How Worm Gears Work
An electric motor or engine applies rotational power via to the worm. The worm rotates against the wheel, and the screw encounter pushes on one’s teeth of the wheel. The wheel is certainly pushed against the load.
Worm Gear Uses
There are some reasons why you might choose a worm gear over a standard gear.
The first one may be the high reduction ratio. A worm equipment can have a massive reduction ratio with small effort – all one must do is certainly add circumference to the wheel. Thus you can utilize it to either greatly increase torque or greatly reduce speed. It will typically consider multiple reductions of a conventional gearset to achieve the same reduction degree of a single worm gear – meaning users of worm gears have fewer moving parts and fewer areas for failure.
A second reason to employ a worm gear is the inability to reverse the direction of power. Due to the friction between the worm and the wheel, it really is virtually difficult for a wheel with power applied to it to start the worm moving.
On a standard gear, the input and output can be switched independently once enough force is applied. This necessitates adding a backstop to a standard gearbox, further raising the complication of the gear set.
YOU WILL WANT TO to Use Worm Gears
There is one especially glaring reason why you might not select a worm gear over a standard gear: lubrication. The motion between your worm and the wheel equipment faces is entirely sliding. There is absolutely no rolling component to the tooth get in touch with or interaction. This makes them relatively difficult to lubricate.
The lubricants required are often high viscosity (ISO 320 and better) and thus are hard to filter, and the lubricants required are typically specialized in what they do, requiring a product to be on-site specifically for that kind of equipment.
Worm Gear Lubrication
The main problem with a worm gear is how it transfers power. It really is a boon and a curse at the same time. The spiral movement allows huge amounts of reduction in a comparatively small amount of space for what is required if a typical helical gear were used.
This spiral motion also causes a remarkably problematic condition to be the primary mode of power transfer. This is commonly known as sliding friction or sliding put on.
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With a typical gear set the power is transferred at the peak load point on the tooth (referred to as the apex or pitchline), at least in a rolling wear condition. Sliding happens on either part of the apex, but the velocity is fairly low.
With a worm gear, sliding motion is the only transfer of power. As the worm slides over the tooth of the wheel, it slowly rubs off the lubricant film, until there is no lubricant film still left, and as a result, the worm rubs at the metal of the wheel in a boundary lubrication regime. When the worm surface leaves the wheel surface area, it picks up more lubricant, and starts the process over again on another revolution.
The rolling friction on a typical gear tooth requires small in the way of lubricant film to complete the spaces and separate both components. Because sliding takes place on either side of the gear tooth apex, a slightly higher viscosity of lubricant than is certainly strictly necessary for rolling wear is required to overcome that load. The sliding occurs at a relatively low velocity.
The worm on a worm set gear turns, even though turning, it crushes against the load that is imposed on the wheel. The only method to prevent the worm from touching the wheel is to have a film thickness large enough never to have the whole tooth surface area wiped off before that area of the worm is out of the load zone.
This scenario requires a special sort of lubricant. Not only will it will have to be a comparatively high viscosity lubricant (and the bigger the strain or temperature, the higher the viscosity should be), it must have some way to help get over the sliding condition present.
Read The Right Way to Lubricate Worm Gears to find out more on this topic.
Viscosity may be the major element in avoiding the worm from touching the wheel in a worm equipment set. While the load and size of gearing determines the required lubricant, an ISO 460 or ISO 680 is rather common, and an ISO 1000 is not unheard of. If you’ve ever really tried to filter this range of viscosity, you know it is problematic since it is likely that non-e of the filters or pumps you possess on-site will be the correct size or rating to function properly.
Therefore, you’ll likely have to get a particular pump and filter for this kind of unit. A lubricant that viscous requires a slower operating pump to prevent the lubricant from activating the filter bypass. It will require a huge surface area filter to allow the lubricant to circulation through.
Lubricant Types to consider
One lubricant type commonly used with worm gears is mineral-based, compounded equipment oils. There are no additives that can be placed into a lubricant that can make it overcome sliding wear indefinitely, but the organic or synthetic fatty additive combination in compounded gear oils results in good lubricity, providing an extra way of measuring protection from metal-to-metal get in touch with.
Another lubricant type commonly used in mixture with worm gears is mineral-based, commercial extreme pressure (EP) equipment oils. There are some problems with this kind of lubricant in case you are using a worm gear with a yellow metallic (brass) component. However, for those who have fairly low operating temperature ranges or no yellow steel present on the apparatus tooth surfaces, this lubricant is effective.
Polyalphaolefin (PAO) gear lubricants work well in worm equipment applications because they naturally have got good lubricity properties. With a PAO equipment oil, it’s important to watch the additive package, because these can possess EP additives. A standard-duty antiwear (AW) fortified gear essential oil will typically become acceptable, but check that the properties are appropriate for most metals.
The author recommends to closely watch the use metals in oil analysis testing to ensure that the AW package isn’t so reactive concerning cause significant leaching from the brass. The result should be much less than what will be seen with EP also in a worst-case scenario for AW reactivity, nonetheless it can show up in metals screening. If you need a lubricant that can deal with higher- or lower-than-typical temperatures, a suitable PAO-based product is likely available.
Polyalkylene glycols (PAG), a fourth type of lubricant, are getting more prevalent. These lubricants have superb lubricity properties, and don’t contain the waxes that cause low-temperature problems with many mineral lubricants, producing them an excellent low-temperature choice. Caution must be taken when working with PAG oils because they’re not appropriate for mineral oils, and some seals and paints.
Metallurgy of Worm Gears
The most typical worm gears are created with a brass wheel and a steel worm. This is because the brass wheel is normally easier to replace compared to the worm itself. The wheel is made out of brass since it is designed to be sacrificial.
When the two surfaces come into contact, the worm is marginally secure from wear because the wheel is softer, and therefore, most of the wear occurs on the wheel. Oil evaluation reports on this type of unit almost always show some degree of copper and low levels of iron – consequently of the sacrificial wheel.
This brass wheel throws another problem into the lubrication equation for worm gears. If a sulfur-phosphorous EP gear oil is placed into the sump of a worm equipment with a brass wheel, and the temperature is usually high enough, the EP additive will activate. In normal metal gears, this activation produces a thin coating of oxidation on the surface that really helps to protect the gear tooth from shock loads and other extreme mechanical conditions.
On the brass surface however, the activation of the EP additive results in significant corrosion from the sulfur. In a brief amount of time, you can drop a substantial portion of the load surface area of the wheel and trigger major damage.
Other Materials
A few of the less common materials within worm gear sets include:
Steel worm and steel worm wheel – This program doesn’t have the EP problems of brass gearing, but there is no room for mistake built into a gearbox such as this. Repairs on worm gear sets with this combination of metal are usually more costly and additional time eating than with a brass/steel worm gear set. This is because the material transfer associated with failure makes both the worm and the wheel unusable in the rebuild.
Brass worm and brass worm wheel – This software is most likely found in moderate to light load circumstances because the brass can only keep up to a lower quantity of load. Lubricant selection on this metal combination is flexible because of the lighter load, but one must still consider the additive restrictions regarding EP due to the yellow metal.
Plastic on metal, on plastic, and other comparable combinations – This is typically found in relatively light load applications, such as robotics and auto components. The lubricant selection depends on the plastic in use, because many plastic varieties respond to the hydrocarbons in regular lubricant, and thus will require silicon-based or other nonreactive lubricants.
Although a worm gear will will have a few complications compared to a typical gear set, it can easily be an effective and reliable device. With a little attention to setup and lubricant selection, worm gears can provide reliable service along with any other type of gear set.
A worm drive is one simple worm gear set mechanism when a worm meshes with a worm gear. Even it is basic, there are two important components: worm and worm equipment. (Also, they are called the worm and worm wheel) The worm and worm wheel is important motion control component providing large quickness reductions. It can decrease the rotational speed or increase the torque output. The worm drive movement advantage is that they can transfer motion in right angle. In addition, it has an interesting property: the worm or worm shaft can certainly turn the gear, but the gear can not really switch the worm. This worm drive self-locking feature allow worm gear includes a brake function in conveyor systems or lifting systems.
An Intro to Worm Gearbox
The most important applications of worm gears is utilized in worm gear box. A worm gearbox is named a worm reduction gearbox, worm gear reducer or a worm drive gearbox. It includes worm gears, shafts, bearings, and box frames.
The worm equipment, shafts, bearings load are supported by the package shell. So, the gearbox housing will need to have sufficient hardness. Otherwise, it will result in lower transmitting quality. As the worm gearbox has a durable, tranny ratio, little size, self-locking ability, and simple framework, it is used across a wide range of industries: Rotary table or turntable, materials dosing systems, auto feed machinery, stacking machine, belt conveyors, farm picking lorries and more automation sector.
How to Select High Efficient Worm Gearbox?
The worm gear manufacturing process is also not at all hard. However, there is a low transmission effectiveness problem if you don’t know the how to choose the worm gearbox. 3 basic point to choose high worm equipment efficiency that you need to know:
1) Helix position. The worm equipment drive efficiency mostly depend on the helix position of the worm. Usually, multiple thread worms and gears is certainly more efficient than one thread worms. Proper thread worms can increase efficiency.
2) Lubrication. To choose a brand lubricating essential oil is an essential factor to boost worm gearbox efficiency. As the correct lubrication can reduce worm gear action friction and heat.
3) Materials selection and Gear Manufacturing Technology. For worm shaft, the material should be hardened steel. The worm gear material ought to be aluminium bronze. By reducing the worm equipment hardness, the friction on the worm the teeth is decreased. In worm production, to use the specialized machine for gear slicing and tooth grinding of worms can also increase worm gearbox efficiency.
From a huge transmission gearbox capacity to a straight small worm gearbox load, you can choose one from a wide selection of worm reducer that precisely matches your application requirements.
Worm Gear Container Assembly:
1) You can complete the set up in six different ways.
2) The installation must be solid and reliable.
3) Ensure that you verify the connection between the electric motor and the worm equipment reducer.
4) You must use flexible cables and wiring for a manual installation.
By using the innovative science and drive technology, we have developed several unique “square package” designed from high-quality aluminium die casting with a lovely appearance. The modular worm gearbox design series: worm drive gearbox, parallel shaft gearbox, bevel helical gearbox, spiral bevel gearbox, coaxial gearbox, right angle gearbox. An NMRV series gearbox is certainly a standard worm gearbox with a bronze worm equipment and a worm. Our Helical gearbox product line consists of four universal series (R/S/K/F) and a step-less velocity variation UDL series. Their framework and function act like an NMRV worm gearbox.
Worm gears are made of a worm and a gear (sometimes known as a worm wheel), with non-parallel, nonintersecting shafts oriented 90 degrees to each other. The worm is usually analogous to a screw with a V-type thread, and the gear is definitely analogous to a spur equipment. The worm is typically the driving component, with the worm’s thread advancing the teeth of the gear.
Just like a ball screw, the worm in a worm gear might have an individual start or multiple starts – meaning that there are multiple threads, or helicies, on the worm. For a single-start worm, each full turn (360 degrees) of the worm advances the gear by one tooth. Therefore a gear with 24 teeth will provide a gear reduction of 24:1. For a multi-begin worm, the apparatus reduction equals the amount of teeth on the gear, divided by the amount of begins on the worm. (This is different from almost every other types of gears, where in fact the gear reduction is a function of the diameters of both components.)
The worm in a worm gear assembly can have one start (thread) or multiple starts.
Image credit: Kohara Gear Sector Company, Ltd.
The meshing of the worm and the gear is an assortment of sliding and rolling actions, but sliding contact dominates at high reduction ratios. This sliding action causes friction and warmth, which limits the efficiency of worm gears to 30 to 50 percent. To be able to minimize friction (and therefore, heat), the worm and equipment are made of dissimilar metals – for example, the worm may be made of hardened metal and the apparatus made of bronze or aluminum.
Although the sliding contact reduces efficiency, it provides extremely quiet operation. (The use of dissimilar metals for the worm and equipment also contributes to quiet procedure.) This makes worm gears suitable for use where noise should be minimized, such as in elevators. In addition, the use of a softer material for the gear means that it could absorb shock loads, like those experienced in weighty equipment or crushing devices.
The primary advantage of worm gears is their capability to provide high reduction ratios and correspondingly high torque multiplication. They can also be used as acceleration reducers in low- to moderate-swiftness applications. And, because their reduction ratio is founded on the number of gear teeth by itself, they are more compact than other types of gears. Like fine-pitch business lead screws, worm gears are usually self-locking, making them perfect for hoisting and lifting applications.
A worm gear reducer is one type of reduction gear box which includes a worm pinion input, an output worm equipment, and features a right angle result orientation. This type of reduction gear container is generally used to take a rated motor velocity and produce a low speed result with higher torque value based on the decrease ratio. They often can solve space-saving problems because the worm equipment reducer is one of the sleekest reduction gearboxes available due to the little diameter of its output gear.
worm gear reducerWorm gear reducers are also a popular type of quickness reducer because they offer the greatest speed decrease in the smallest package. With a high ratio of speed decrease and high torque output multiplier, it’s unsurprising that many power transmission systems make use of a worm equipment reducer. Some of the most common applications for worm gears can be found in tuning instruments, medical testing equipment, elevators, protection gates, and conveyor belts.
Torque Transmission offers two sizes of worm equipment reducer, the SW-1 and the SW-5 and both are available in a variety of ratios. The SW-1 ratios include 3.5:1 to 60:1 and the SW-5 ratios include 5:1 to 100:1. Both these options are produced with rugged compression-molded glass-fill up polyester housings for a durable, long lasting, light-weight speed reducer that’s also compact, non-corrosive, and nonmetallic.
Features
Our worm gear reducers offer an option of a good or hollow output shaft and feature an adjustable mounting placement. Both the SW-1 and the SW-5, however, can endure shock loading better than other decrease gearbox styles, making them perfect for demanding applications.
Rugged compression-molded glass-fill up polyester housing
Light weight and compact
Non corrosive
Non metallic
Range of ratios
SW-1, 3.5:1 to 60:1
SW-5, 5:1 to 100:1
Grease Lubrication
Solid or Hollow output shaft
Adjustable mounting position
Overview
Technical Info
Low friction coefficient on the gearing for high efficiency.
Powered by long-long lasting worm gears.
Minimal speed fluctuation with low noise and low vibration.
Lightweight and compact relative to its high load capacity.
Compact design
Compact design is one of the key terms of the typical gearboxes of the BJ-Series. Further optimisation may be accomplished by using adapted gearboxes or particular gearboxes.
Low noise
Our worm gearboxes and actuators are extremely quiet. This is due to the very smooth working of the worm gear combined with the use of cast iron and high precision on element manufacturing and assembly. In connection with our precision gearboxes, we consider extra treatment of any sound that can be interpreted as a murmur from the gear. Therefore the general noise level of our gearbox is reduced to a complete minimum.
Angle gearboxes
On the worm gearbox the input shaft and output shaft are perpendicular to each other. This often proves to become a decisive advantage making the incorporation of the gearbox substantially simpler and more compact.The worm gearbox is an angle gear. This is an advantage for incorporation into constructions.
Solid bearings in solid housing
The output shaft of the BJ worm gearbox is quite firmly embedded in the apparatus house and is well suited for direct suspension for wheels, movable arms and other areas rather than having to create a separate suspension.
Self locking
For larger equipment ratios, BJ-Gear’s worm gearboxes will provide a self-locking effect, which in many circumstances can be used as brake or as extra protection. Also spindle gearboxes with a trapezoidal spindle are self-locking, making them ideal for an array of solutions.

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